2017), SGX942 (dusquetide) (Kudrimoti et al

2017), SGX942 (dusquetide) (Kudrimoti et al. SmithKline Beecham) was licensed for the first four doses of the series.May 14, 2002Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine (Daptacel by Aventis Pasteur) was licensed.Hepatitis B Vaccines a. Engerix B ? (GSK) b. Recombivax ? (Merck) c. Dynavax July 23, 1986Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (Recombivax HB by Merck) was licensed.Aug 28, 1989Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (Engerix B by SmithKline Beecham) was licensed.November 9, 2017FDA licensed Heplisav-B, the new hepatitis B vaccine from Dynavax, for use in adults age 18 and older.Hepatitis A Vaccines a. Vaqta ? (Merck) b. Havrix ? (GSK) Bis-NH2-C1-PEG3 c. Twinrix Feb 22, 1995The first inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (Havrix by SmithKline Beecham) was licensed.Mar 29, 1996A second inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (Vaqta by Merck) was licensed.May 11, 2001A combined hepatitis A inactivated and hepatitis B (recombinant) vaccine (Twinrix by SmithKline Beecham) was licensed.Polio Vaccine a. IPOL ? (Sanofi Pasteur) June 25, 1963Trivalent oral polio vaccine was licensed.Dec 21, 1990An enhanced-potency inactivated poliovirus vaccine (Ipol by Pasteur Mrieux Vaccins et Serums) was licensed.Yellow fever vaccine a. YF-Vax Jan 3, 1978Yellow fever vaccine (YF-Vax by Connaught) was licensed in the USA.May 22, 1953Yellow fever vaccine (Merrell National Labs) was first licensed in the USA.HPV vaccines ((HPV) types 6, 11, 16, and 18.Pneumococcal Vaccines a. Prevnar 13 ? (Wyeth) b. Pneumovax 23 (Merck) July 1983Two enhanced pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines were licensed (Pneumovax 23 by Merck on July 11 and Bis-NH2-C1-PEG3 Pnu-Imune 23 by Lederle on July 21). These vaccines included 23 purified capsular polysaccharide antigens of and replaced the 14-valent polysaccharide vaccine licensed in 1977.February 24, 2010FDA approved licensure of Pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13), which offers broader protections against infections.February 24, 2010FDA approved pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine (Prevnar 13), which offers broader protection against (Hilleman 1987). Until now, numerous recombinant vaccines have been approved against viral pathogens such Human papilloma virus (Slade et al. 2009), Influenza (Girard et al. 2013), and bacterial pathogens including Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) (Jacobs et al. 1990) and Meningococcal (Cooper et al. 2011). Recently, a recombinant vaccine called shingrix has been developed against shingles disease caused by the varicella zoster virus with a high level protection (up to 90%) against this disease (Raedler 2018). One of the main challenges in the development of recombinant vaccines is the Rabbit polyclonal to KBTBD7 selection of the suitable target antigens. At present, reverse vaccinology is one of the promising approaches to identify repertoire of antigens that are Bis-NH2-C1-PEG3 highly antigenic, with surface through importing NlpA gene into pEGFP-C2 vector (Hashemzehi et al. 2018). Also, a DNA vaccine has developed against through construction of OmpK gene as immunogenic protein of in pcDNA3.1 vector that can induce humoral and cellular immune responses in immunized fish with vector expressing OmpK gene (Xu et al. 2019). Unlike, other vaccines such as recombinant protein vaccines and live attenuated virus which their generation is usually prolonged and costly, DNA vaccines are flexible and produced quickly. However, there are some limitations in the use of DNA vaccines such as inducing weak immune response, the probability of activation of oncogenes during genomic integration of DNA vaccines, as well as production of anti-DNA antibodies in the body (Harrison and Bianco 2000). Because of these limitations, no DNA vaccines have been FDA approved to combat infections. Subunit vaccines Subunit vaccines are produced through purification of antigens directly from the pathogen. So that, based on the type of antigen (surface molecules, subcellular, and toxins) used in subunit vaccine, the type of immune responses in the host is different (Baxter 2007) (Scott and Cheryl 2004). Polysaccharide antigens induce T-independent immune response whereas protein antigens induce T cell-dependent responses. Conjugated vaccines are another type of subunit vaccines in which a protein carrier is used to deliver the polysaccharide antigen. In this type of vaccine, polysaccharide with poorly immunogenic property is usually conjugated to a protein carrier which is usually strongly immunogenic. In the conjugated vaccines, both T-dependent and T-independent immune responses are activated in the host. Totally, Diphtheria Toxoid D (Pace and Pollard 2007), CRM197 (Shinefield 2010), Protein D (Plosker 2014), or.

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