Moreover, LNUC samples showed an mutation frequency much higher than in conventional MIBC and points to the possibility of an alterations are among the most important oncogenic mechanisms [9]

Moreover, LNUC samples showed an mutation frequency much higher than in conventional MIBC and points to the possibility of an alterations are among the most important oncogenic mechanisms [9]. up to 33% of radical cystectomies as pure variant tumors or mixed tumors with conventional urothelial carcinoma (cUC) or other variants [1]. However, the actual prevalence of variant morphologies is SCH 442416 not completely clear, since SCH 442416 they may be under-recognized. The biological background, and therefore implications for clinical management, of reported variants of UC are not yet well comprehended and are still under investigation [2]. The large nested variant of urothelial carcinoma (LNUC) was first described in 2011 by Cox and Epstein [3] and has only recently been included in the 2016 SCH 442416 World Health Organization (WHO) Classification system within the nested variant of urothelial carcinoma (NVUC) [4]. Morphologically, LNUC usually presents with large-sized well-delineated or irregular tumor nests with a bland cytology invading the detrusor muscle [3]. The growth pattern of LNUC is similar to the nested variant of urothelial carcinoma, with tumor nests lacking inflammatory and/or desmoplastic stroma reaction. This was probably the reason for combining LNUC and NVUC into one group in the WHO classification. Since the first description, only two clinicopathological studies demonstrated the aggressive behavior of this specific variant [5,6]. However, to date, no molecular data on LNUC have been available. Until recently, platin-based chemotherapy regimens were the gold standard in the therapy of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Advances in the therapeutic management of invasive UC include immunooncological therapies with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, as well as targeted therapies with inhibitors. Medications from both groups have been approved by the FDA ( and are currently being tested in clinical trials [7]. Moreover, molecular subtypes of UC based on gene expression analyses are supposed to have predictive value [8]. A molecular taxonomy consensus classification of UC summarizing the results of several gene expression studies revealed six bladder SCH 442416 cancer subtypes [9]. In the present study, we evaluated mutational status, PD-L1 tumor cell and immune cell expression and the molecular subtype in SCH 442416 a cohort of 25 LNUCs. 2. Results 2.1. Clinical Data and Histomorphological Evaluation Within our cohort of 25 patients diagnosed with LNUC, 18 were male, four were female, and three were not known. Twenty-four of the 25 tumors within the cohort were MIBC (pT2) and high-grade tumors according to the WHO classification (Table 1). In one case, we did not see tumor infiltration of the detrusor muscle, however, in this case we received tumor tissue from an osseous metastasis. Histomorphologically, LNUC showed medium to large-sized nests with a predominantly bland cytological appearance, with low mitotic activity invading the detrusor muscle and frequent central comedo-like necrosis. There was only very limited stromal response with, at most, sparse immune cell infiltration Mouse Monoclonal to Strep II tag and little to a complete absence of stromal desmoplasia. In addition, 12/25 cases presented with a papillary and/or inverted papillary-like carcinoma component, giving the impression of an exophytic and partially inverted UC. However, compared to conventional non-invasive papillary UC, the papillary structures of LNUC frequently were much more plump, elongated and rarely branched. Of the 25 cases, 17 were pure LNUC; the remaining cases (8/25) presented with a mixed morphology combined with the classical nested variant with small-sized nests (n = 7) or cUC (n = 1). Other rare variant morphologies were not detected. Physique 1 demonstrates the histomorphological characteristics and phenotypes of LNUC. Open in a separate window Physique 1 (A) Large nested urothelial carcinoma: common histomorphology showing large-sized well delineated nests with bland cytology infiltrating the detrusor muscle; (B) inverted growth pattern in LNUC; (C) Papillary-like exophytic component; (D) LNUC combined with classical nested variant urothelial carcinoma (NVUC) (all H&E; all 100 fold original magnification). Table 1 Clinical and morphological characteristics. mutated, 16 of which were pure LNUC. The only mixed LNUC with a mutation was an LNUC combined with NVUC. In detail, a p.S249C mutation was found in eight (47.1%), p.Y375C in six (35.3%).

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